This article is a translation of Song E Yoon’s master's thesis <A study on the invisible dimension through the media> published by Busan National University Press. It comprises 53 pages and can download the original Korean language from the Busan National University Library.
A Study on the Invisible Dimension Through Media
I. Introduction 1
1. Background and purpose of study 1
2. Research Method and Content 2
II. Background of the formation of the work 3
1. Philosophical background 3
1.1. Scientific and philosophical perspectives on invisible phenomena in the East and the West
1.2. Research on invisible phenomena of modern media philosophers 7
2. Trends and changes in works before research 9
2.1. Imposition, of Course, Art Style 11
2.2. Light, sound, space, and media characteristics as Materials 18
2.3. Movement and Circulation 20
2.4. Specification of code and network 20
III. James Turrell's Expression of Invisible Phenomena 28
1. Discussing the Invisible Phenomena of Turrell's Works 28
2. Visible representation of invisible phenomena 29
2.1. Light, time, space 30
2.2. Experience as an invisible phenomenon 32
IV. Significance of research work analysis and INTANGIBLE ART
1. Analysis of the Types and Characteristics of research works 35
1.1. Imposition, of Course, Art Style 35
1.2. Light, sound, space, and media characteristics as materials 36
1.3. Movement and Circulation 41
1.4. Code and network specifications 41
2. Meaning of research work and intangible art setting 43
2.1. Conceptual regulation of intangible Art 44
2.2. Contents and features of INTANGIBLE ART 46
2.3. Relationship between the type of INTANGIBLE ART and research work 47
Researchers have conducted media research on invisible dimensions based on media theories in the 20th century, modern science, and past Eastern philosophy and theoretical studies. However, due to the diversity of forms, it was judged that it was not appropriate to classify the character of the work in an expression method, and I felt the need to find suitable terms that could cover the researcher's work.
For this reason, the researcher tried to explore one possibility of "INTANGIBLE ART" for a new multimedia genre that expresses the non-material world based on the researcher's work.
Intangible art raises the possibility of naming it as a multimedia art genre that expresses invisible and spiritual phenomena and connects the material and non-material worlds using various media. Therefore, in this paper, we studied and analyzed the content and expression of the "visible dimension through media" pursued by the researcher's multi-art genre, "Tansible Art." As a result, the researcher's work can be classified mainly into four categories and expressed with symbols such as Intangible Art or M2I. And it can be seen that its characteristics were to obtain the work results through a medium that intervened to the minimum in work and to express the visible appearance of the invisible phenomenon in the work process.
1. Research Background and Purpose
People in the 21st century live in an environment where they wake up every morning and are exposed to digital media until they fall asleep. The development of mass media and the advent of the Internet have changed our daily lives and culture rapidly. Smartphones have quickly become partners in our lives, from looking into social network services (SNS) timelines as soon as they wake up to checking and sending e-mails on the subway. The development of technology has led to the development and revival of material civilization, but this 'technology' is ironically throwing away materiality and expanding its scope to new technologies that are difficult to identify with the naked eye. A typical example is ultra-fine processing technology of one billionth, such as nano-technology or software technology that gives decisive value to "hardware technology."
The researcher sees the development of visual art over time as a process of change in communication technology and thinks that today's art is functioning as a medium that connects the physical and spiritual dimensions. In addition, the view is that changes in visual media due to the development of technology connect the physical and spiritual world and allow the absolute majority to share the "inspiration" that has been recognized as an exclusive ability of religious people and artists. This is possible because the artist evoked invisible phenomena in artistic languages through various media. As such, the development of technology has opened up the possibility of crossing materials, non-materials, and natural and spiritual worlds without being governed by time and space without a unique ability or enlightenment. Scientists and philosophers in the 21st century began to firmly accept the non-material world after the advent of the cyber world. Still, ancient philosophers in the East viewed the "nothing" world as a non-material concept. They recognized and accepted it as an element already forming the universe before scientific proof. In his book "The Tao of Physics," physicist F. Capra Fritjof revealed that he realized that his explanation of modern physics and the metaphysics of veteran thought were utterly consistent. This is mentioned in his book, the main character and the eldest son, and this content will be dealt with in detail in this text. Researchers have been conducting media research on invisible dimensions based on these 20th-century media theories, modern science, and past Eastern philosophy and theory studies. However, due to the diversity of forms, it was judged that it was not appropriate to classify the nature of the work expressively, and the researcher's work was
I felt the need to find appropriate terms that could be inclusive.
For this reason, the researcher said that a new multimedia genre that expresses the non-material world is 'intangible.'
I want to establish a hypothesis called 'INTANGIBLE ART'. Intangible art is a possibility for naming it as a multimedia art genre that expresses visible and mental phenomena and connects the material and non-material worlds using various media. Therefore, in this paper, we would like to study and analyze how the content and expression of the "visible dimension through media" pursued by the multi-art genre "Intangible Art" set by the researcher will be dealt with.
2. Research methods and contents
This study is on the invisible level of art expression that defines the multi-art genre 'intangible art' as a medium connecting physical and mental dimensions through various media. To this end, we would like to find out the scientific and philosophical definitions and the definition of researchers that are the theoretical background for the invisible dimension. And I will define the concept of intangible art and examine its characteristics. In addition, we will analyze the contents of intangible art expressed in research works. But, first, the plans and procedures for dealing with this problem are as follows.
The introduction to Chapter I mentions the background and purpose of research on the invisible dimension through the medium and describes the method and content for researching the concept and scope of intangible art defined by the researcher.
Chapter II will examine the definition of an invisible dimension from a philosophical background. Section 1 analyzes the similarities and differences between the intellectual and scientific perspectives of the material and non-material worlds from the East and the West. Likewise, in verse 2 and verse 1, modern media philosophers look at the material and non-material worlds and the definition of the invisible dimension. In Section 2, the trends and transitions of the works before the study will be divided into four categories.
Chapter III examines the work of 'James Turrell' to study the expression of invisible phenomena. Section 1 will look at prior research in the paper to discuss the invisible phenomenon of Turrell's work. Section 2 will analyze results that appear as visible expressions of invisible phenomena by dividing them into Section 2's verse 1's "light, sounds,time·space" and Section 2's verse 2's "experience as invisible phenomena."
Chapter IV analyzes the researcher's research work. First, in Section 1, based on the analysis of the works before the research work examined in Chapter 2, Section 2, the researcher's works will be divided into four types. In verse 1 and verse 1, it is a work of "the imposition of the process art style." <Invisible 3_2017>
In the first and second verses, <Invisible 1_2017> and <Invisible 4_2017> will be examined as works with the 'light sound space' characteristics. In Section 1 Section 3, we will analyze moving objects and digital sound installations <Circulation_2016, <Invisible 1_2017, <Invisible 2_2017>, and <Invisible 3_2017> among works with the characteristics of 'Movement and Circulation.' Finally, in verse 1 and verse 4, we will look at the invisible phenomenon expression focusing on the combination and interaction of digital and analog expressed in audience-participating performance and installation work <But_2016> using the network. Through this, the researcher will examine the location and function of this work as a medium that connects the physical and non-material spiritual dimensions commonly referred to as the "real world." Section 2 examines the possibility of hypothesizing about the researcher's intangible art. Section 2 discusses the meaning of the research work and the establishment of the intangible art hypothesis and analyzes the concepts organized in a model to define the concept of intangible art. Section 2 Section 1 Section 1 examines the relationship between the hypothesis raising of intangible art and research work. Finally, the conclusion will summarize the previous research and present the researcher's definition of intangible art by outlining the "study on invisible dimensions through media" that can be examined in the investigation.
II. Background of the formation of the work
1. Philosophical background
Invisible is a non-material phenomenon perceived only by invisible experiences or memories. However, the non-material world has become a world of knowledge that can be accessed anytime, anywhere since the advent of Internet networks in the 20th century. This means that we can control our experiences and memories at will. The emergence of the Internet and smart devices and the subsequent interaction and development of information in the network is progressing unimaginably. Our perceptions and paradigms of the invisible world are clearly divided before and after the advent of the Internet. Therefore, an accurate and precise definition of the opposite visible phenomenon is essential to understand invisible phenomena. In addition, it is necessary to compare and analyze changes in perception of the non-material world that have changed according to the trend of the times based on scientific evidence. In addition, this leads to the need to newly consider the definition of spatiality and time by the medium.
Therefore, in this Chapter II, Section 1, Section 1, Section 1, Section 1, we will look at the commonalities and differences in how material and non-material worlds are defined in Eastern and Western philosophy. In addition, the scientific definition of the spiritual dimension based on the material and non-material systems is considered from the past to the quantum mechanics of the 21st century. In Section 1 and Section 2, we will look at the material and non-material worlds defined by media philosophers in the 20th century. Finally, in Section 2, we will look at the trends and changes of the works before the research work and examine how they affected it.
1.1. Scientific and philosophical perspectives on invisible phenomena in the East and the West
Until the advent of quantum mechanics in modern science, the West had a dualistic worldview that divided nature and observers. On the other hand, in the East, a monolithic worldview considered nature and observant humans as one.
First, the Western worldview can be seen in Hegel's History of Philosophy, and the ancient Greek philosophy of the West began with Thales of Miletus 1. He thought that the source of all things was water. Plato described his cosmology as a regular polyhedron in the dialogue "Timaios."
I explained. The universe's properties were mathematically solved by corresponding the four elements of the universe, soil, air, water, and fire, respectively, to a cube, an octahedron, a regular tetrahedron, and a regular tetrahedron. A long time later, the astronomer Johannes Kepler linked the regular polyhedron described by Plato to five planets, such as the yin and yang (moon and sun) and the five lines of the Orient (Wed, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday). In response, quantum physicist Steven Weinberg said in "Dream of Final Theory," "The reasoning Kepler applied to the solar system is very similar to the theoreticalization made by elementary physicists today."2) They all wanted to find the basic principles of everything. On the other hand, looking at the Eastern perspective, "Roja called the main body of the universe 'Il,' and the eldest son called it 'Taeil.' "Do" means that there is no discrimination beyond the relative standards of the phenomenon world we know, and it transcends time and space. So Laozi already says that what a person can recognize or describe is untrue."3) The eldest son indicated that 'do' is the absolute beginning of everything that transcends the numerical concept of Lao-tzu.
In this way, the Eastern and Western worldviews had distinct differences. However, some ancient Western philosophers thought that matter itself had a non-materiality reflected in human consciousness, similar to the Eastern worldview. "Heraclitus of Ephesus thought that the source of all things was fire and left some similar words to Eastern philosophers that 'existence is nothing more than non-existence.' He valued creation and process and explored the truth in a "going state" rather than the concept of "being." And this generative change is the truth of the world, and he called the eternal law that governs this generative change, saying that the static and identical forms of existence of things are only temporary. "4) Aristoteles is a Greek philosopher who explored the nature of things. He valued non-material concepts, not materials, and saw that the universe was divided into a complete "Cheon Sanggye" that was above the moon and circularly moved and a "ground system" that was below and incomplete and linear. He understood that exercise is the transformation of one essence into another. "We thought that heavy objects fall to Earth, the center of gravity, and light objects fly to outer space, the center of lightness, because of its nature."5) The scientific research of the macro and micro worlds based on the physical and non-material worlds in the East and West
1) It was a natural philosophy school in the 6th century BC in the southern Greek colonial city of Miletos in Ionia, on the west coast of Asia Minor. It is known as the beginning of ancient Greek philosophy, and its representatives include Thales, Anaximandros, and Anaximenes. Miletos School [Milesian School]
2) Lee Jong-pil, Finding the Particles of God, Marty, 2008, p. 43.3) Jangju, Jangja, Yeonam Bookga, 2010, p. 28.
4) Lim Seok-jin et al., Philosophical Dictionary』, Jungwon Culture, 2009, p. 1091. 5) Lee Jong-pil, Finding God's Particles, Marty, 2008, p. 43.
Perspectives had something in common, but on the other hand, there were also many differences. However, with the advent of modern physics, humanity's worldview is getting closer to an oriental view of invisible matter.
Science before modern physics has explored the macro world. The word 'atom,' meaning it can no longer be cut in Greek, was recognized as the smallest unit of matter. But a century ago, a scientist named Ernest Rutherford discovered a nucleus in an atom and revealed that there are electrons around it and that the core is similar to the solar system, so it is centered like the sun, and the electrons are around it. In the early 20th century, it was discovered that the nucleus consisted of proton neutrons. Then, in the late 1960s, scientists found that the elementary particles that makeup matter were six quarks and six leptons that always existed symmetrically. The quantum mechanics of discovering and seeing these things has led modern scientists to study the micro-world. Modern scientists have learned that individual particles cannot exist independently and must be connected to other particles. When the bottom quark was discovered in 1977, physicists were convinced of the existence of his mate top quark, and it was only discovered 18 years later.
Since the advent of quantum mechanics, people's minds have begun to change. In 1935, Einstein Epr Experiment 6) proved in the early 1980s that one particle's motion determines another particle's movement. Rudolph Arnheim explained that particles are "balanced" like seesaws. This phenomenon has been demonstrated through experiments. The relationship between physically diverse forms of particles and forces that scientists have shown has enabled us to explain the principles of the universe. The physicist F. Capra Fritjof mentioned in his book "The Tao of Physics" that his explanation of modern physics and the metaphysics of veteran thought are consistent. He saw that quantum physics and Eastern thought to coincide with the perspective of intuitively seeing parts in the whole, that is, the four-dimensional concept of transcendent changes in the many to one. Niels Henrik David Bohr also explained the principle of complementarity 7) using the Taegeuk pattern, which symbolizes yin and yang ideas. "Quantum theory with a monistic view of nature that denies the existence of objective facts and combines nature, which is an object of observation, with humans who observe them" 8) shows unity with the oriental worldview and continues to prove objectivity.
6) In 1935, Einstein, Podolski, and Rosen submitted a paper titled "Is the quantum mechanical description of physical reality complete?" and argued for the objective realism that proximity actions, locality, and physical reality exist on their own without relying on observation.
7) The principle of complementarity refers to the idea that two incompatible objects supplement each other to form a single thing or world. Katsuhiko Sato, What is quantum theory?』, Vitamin Book, 2006, p. 172.
8) The book above, p. 173.
Meanwhile, if you think that the Big Bang created the universe about 13.5 billion years ago, then matter, energy, time, and space were created. Then, about 70,000 years ago, the Homo sapiens species, called human ancestors, emerged as 'culture.' The process by which human culture has developed is called history. It was the three revolutions that shaped the course of history. The cognitive revolution about 70,000 years ago marked the beginning of history. "The agricultural revolution, which occurred about 12,000 years ago, accelerated the pace of history. It was only 500 years ago that the scientific revolution began. "9) As human culture develops, the continuing question that humans ask the universe is, as the painting title by impressionist Paul Gauguin, "Where do we come from, what are we, and where do we go?" Particle physics sought to discover the nature of humans and the world through experiments that collide particles at the European Joint Atomic Nuclear Research Institute (CERN), established in Switzerland in 1954. However, John Ellis, a professor and theoretical physicist at King's College in London, said this while studying the theory of the universe's expansion."We only know about 4 percent of the general matter in the universe. The other 25% to 30% is dark matter, and the other 75% is dark energy. But you don't know what it is."Our knowledge and attitude toward the universe are to insist on being humble.
What is the reality in these human efforts to find the nature of the universe? It's like a process to get an answer. Homo Ludens 10), a "playing human" who operates a computer, maybe on a short and long journey to answer the question in a telematic society composed of digital networks. Perhaps these questions are a human instinct for exploration to define one's existence between visible and experiential material worlds and non-material worlds that are believed to be invisible but real.
1.2. A Study on the Invisible Phenomenon of Media Philosophers
This chapter examines the material and non-material worlds defined by "Vilém Flusser" and "Paul Virilio" among media philosophers in the 20th century. It looks at what an essential phenomenon in the digital era is. In the 20th century, media philosophers studied the invisible wonders of the macro and micro worlds. Media means medium or medium; in modern times, it means all means of communication. Especially image media, digital media, etc
9) Yuval Harari, Sapiens, translated by Cho Hyun-wook, Kim Young-sa, 2015, pp. 18-19.
10) Homo Ludens [Homo Ludens] is a "playing human" or a "playing human." Johan Huizinga, (d,
"Homo Ludens," published in 1938, 1872-1945) emphasized that play is not an element of culture, but culture itself has the nature of play. 사전Sunshine Essay Dictionary』, History of People and Thought, 2007. 333.
Since its inception, it has caused socio-cultural reevaluation and problem awareness as a means of non-verbal communication.11) "Villem Flusher" refuted the distrust of images or digital virtual with a problem with digital virtuality and superficiality centered on technical images. And the overall problem of communication was presented with a new philosophy called 'kommunikologie' 12)"Shim Hye-ryeon, a media philosophy researcher, summarized the system of communication that Plusser thought about in his book, Media Philosophy of the 20th Century, as follows as.
"Plusser, who thought the medium was the center of communication theory, identifies the communication system with three main codes. It can be divided into the era of cyclical thinking before the Alphabet, the era of Alphabet with linear thinking, and the era after the Alphabet that pursues individual thinking. This system has re-circulated from the age of images to the age of letters to technical images. However, technical images are different from the past image era in that they contain computer languages based on binary in the image. In other words, the cyber world, a complex of technical images, is not an artificial space created but a non-material system that includes all the material systems. He said it no longer means anything to distinguish Simulakr from the original, which Bodriyar claimed. We live in a pluralistic world where we cannot distinguish reality from virtuality."13)
Virilio perceived this change negatively, unlike the flusher, who viewed the networked space as a new spatial expansion. He argued that a telematic society would make all beings unreal and destroy them. "As technology advances, the speed is getting faster, and the development of various visual machines strengthens the power of vision, making space 'de-territorialized.' In particular, as seen from the spread of SNS due to the emergence of smartphones, the distinction between private and public spaces seems to have disappeared. The freer access to the non-material world is, the more human beings lose their material existence. Virilio sees the cause as a time paradigm called 'real-time' and 'telepresence'14)15)
11) Shim Hye-ryeon, Art, and Media, the band of Mobius, East, 2006, p. 145.
12) Comunicologi is a concept created by a Flusser and refers to the techniques and learning of human communication. This study is in
The liver starts from the assumption that he communicates with others by giving meaning to his world and life and denying death because he is lonely while knowing the meaninglessness of death and life. So humans create a coded world, an anti-entropy world, intending to combine it with the world of "concrete" experience. Willem Flusser, 미디어Media Phenomenology,, Translated by Kim Sung-jae, Communication Books, 2013, p. 33.
13) Shim Hye-ryeon, 20 The Media Philosophy of the 20th Century의, Green B, 2012, p. 218.
14) Remote presentation is "experiencing that it exists in a certain environment by a communication medium," that is, the environment
It is a concept that means a mediated perception. According to Stoyer, the factors determining remote technical development are largely divided into "vibrant" and "interactive." A typical user factor is the user's relationship with the mediating environment or technology, that is, involvement. [Naver Encyclopedia of Knowledge] Remote Exhibition, New Media Theory』, Communication Books, 2013.15) The above book, p. 218.
Through this, it can be seen that media philosophers of the 20th century view the expansion of the emerging non-material world of new networks as two axes of positive or negative perspectives.
2. Trends and changes in works before research work
The researcher previously mentioned that he has been working to express the invisible world through various media in the purpose and background of the study and that he felt the need to classify the characteristics of the work by expression method due to the diversity of media. Therefore, the results before the study were largely divided into four types. First, it was classified into works with process art for painting, second installation works expressing light, and sound space, third installation works representing movement and circulation, and finally, work saying code and network. Their content comprises three elements: zeitlichkeit, spatiality, and materiality. These elements explain the tension between humans and nature, the essential principles of the universe felt in everyday life, and researchers represent invisible but natural invisible phenomena by exhibiting the process of work. The researcher's writer's note explains Zeitlichkeit, spatiality, and materiality as follows. "Zeitlichkeit is the history of matter and man. The conditions of time passing by are the same. I explain this through the process and traces of installation work in which a substance falls from top to bottom or reaches the critical value limit. For example, the paint falls from top to bottom, leaving a trace on the painting on the floor, covering the previous result. However, this process is not a break from the past but includes the continuous and organic flow of time and the past, present, and future of all substances present in it. It explains that time and matter are overlapping beings at the same time, not segmented others. Extensibility refers to all spaces in the micro and macro worlds invisible to the eyes of gravity and gravity. The origin of my work can be found in the Five color and Five Elements in the color, the basis of Eastern philosophy. Therefore, rather than drawing, the picture is marked by the continuity of space, such as the change in the material's properties due to wind, air, and temperature. And light and sound awaken the five senses and look at us as being in space. Color is another name for the universe and the most suitable visual language that constitutes my work. Fluorescent colors based on pentagonal colors and colors representing the orientation and components of the universe are not just the properties of matter, but also the symbolic meaning of the matter in which order and tension are sometimes harmonized instead of color." As seen from this, the researcher believes that zeitlichkeit, spatiality, and materiality do not exist separately but are organically connected to harmonize and contain the order of the universe as Five color and Five Elements in the color speak. The researcher will look at how these elements were expressed in the research work through the work as follows. The researcher divided the researcher's work into four types and classified it as shown in Graph 1 to understand the characteristics of intangible art revealed in work. In some cases, a work overlaps with various kinds. The works shown in Graph 1 below will be examined in detail in the text.
[Graph 1] Classification of works to be analyzed by researchers.
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2.1. The Imposition of Process Art
Song E Yoon <Credit of the Universe>, 4x2.5x3.5m, Computer Music_Blacklight__Still_Mo
Tur_Medical Ringer_fluorescent paint_acrylic_canvas_ball
Liver installation, 2011.
Works with process art can be divided into two primary forms. One is a process art form in the exhibition hall that shows the work progressing as the paint slowly falls from the ceiling for a long time or the color flows down. The second method is a performance format in which paint is poured out on the spot at an instant speed. These works are characterized by paintings and installations that display the work process. And since an image is born as a result of installation art or behavior, it can be seen that the genre is never different. These installations reveal the process of painting on canvas by chance or by any tool other than the artist's hand, allowing the material's pure material to be conveyed without filtration. And by allowing you to experience space and time, you can share the process of the story itself on canvas. Linda Weintraub describes art that shows the process in her book "Art Beyond Art." "The life of a work of art does not begin with leaving the studio. Instead, an attractive story develops between the idea of the work and the realization of the idea. Reorganizing the sequence of decisions driving the reproduction of a work opens the door to the amazing world of the artist's spirit."16) I said. As such, showing the work's production process and recording its traces in flat paintings is the core of the installation work for the image.
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[Figure 3] <My Portrait>
First, let's look at the process of art that takes a long time. [Figure 1] <Credit of the Universe> and <Figure 3> <My Portrait> are works completed in the exhibition hall over several months as paint falls from top to bottom, one drop at a time. In "Credibility of the Universe," the fluorescent blue canvas and the main installation where the movement takes place were installed in the center. And on the outer wall of the installation space, a fluorescent color thread was hung horizontally to create a fine line. The lighting was adjusted to look a fluorescent color with black light. In addition, the sound was digitally edited to resonate throughout the space by editing natural sounds such as water and wind. These devices allow the viewer to see the painting process during the exhibition and experience the light and sound of the universe in that space.
16) Linda Wine Traub, 미술Art Beyond Art,, translated by Jung Soo-kyung, and Kim Jin-yeop, Book Korea, 2015, p. 209.
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In this work, paint was put in a medical sap bottle to slowly adjust the speed as if the fluid was entering the patient's body so that the color fell one drop at a time. The paint drops are accidentally dropped by two wind-generating motors installed around them. As the motor continues to rotate, the direction of the sap line cannot be controlled by the author and is only driven by the wind. In addition, the thick thread was hung along with the sap string so that the viewer could feel the presence of the wind. [Figure 2] in the installed space is a painting work completed during the process of [Figure 1] for about eight months. A trace of the time on the plane, both the viewer and the artist, can see after the exhibition is over There is. If you look at [Figure 2], you can see that the drop of paint has fallen in a relatively regular form. Through this work, the researcher tried to experience and think about the essence between the invisible universe's macro and micro worlds in the background of physical phenomena such as evaporation and solidification, time, and space. [Figure 3] <My portrait> is a 'self-portrait' as the title suggests. This work is network-based and set up in the domain "myportrait.com " to allow anonymous online subscribers to trade pictures under the theme "Various Ways and Transactions of Painting." This part will be covered in detail in Chapter 2, Section 4, code and network type, and we will analyze the installed <My Portrait> as part of this work. This work also allows viewers to see the painting process as paint falls on the canvas from a wet cloth hanging from the ceiling.
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[Figure 5] Song E Yoon, <Essence>, 1.5X2X2.5m, Cement Block_Industrial Paint_Drum Bucket, 2015.
In the middle of the exhibition hall, a black canvas is placed horizontally on the floor with a stainless steel paint notice, and a dark pink cloth wet with paint hangs from the sky blue. The artist usually wears this piece of fabric and is tied up. The word 'myportrait.com ' is written on the wall. And on the other wall are self-portraits of various expressions painted by others. The residue of torn clothes, the dye of wet, faded clothes, and the paint slowly harden as it falls on the canvas. The researcher thought his clothes contained the person's time and traces, expressing a self-portrait. [Figure 4] shows the painting two months after the work was carried out. Although the production process is not exposed for as long as the installation work above, the following images can be seen as the paint is mixed according to the slope of the flat canvas. Next, we would like to examine the second method, the performance format in which color is instantly poured out in the field. [Figure 5] <Essence> records traces of time by placing media found in areas that serve as the background of life in space. This work was produced in 2014 when the researcher lived in New York, Manhattan, and Long Island City. The Long Island City area, which used to be a workspace, is in the midst of development, with hotels and shopping malls built in the slum area at the time. Cement blocks and stones placed on the floor were taken from the construction site, while drums and gray industrial paints on the walls were also taken from the site.
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An hour before the exhibition's opening, paint was poured into a drum installed on the wall so that it flowed from top to bottom, and the properties of the sticky liquid could be seen.
[Figure 6] Song E Yoon, <What is more?>, variable size, canvas cloth_industrial paint_wood_clothes_thread, 2014.
[Figure 8] Song E Yoon, <Mobius stripe_confront>, 160.6X120.3 cm, Acrylic on Canvas, 2010.
[Figure 9] Song E Yoon, variable size, <Evolution, Involution>, acrylic on canvas, 2012.
[Figure 6] <What is more?> also has similar characteristics to the above work. The artist's clothes on the wall, the scroll thread connected to the clothes, the blackboard leaning against the wall, and the white wood on the floor, which is part of the bed the artist used, are linked to the time of life. And as you can see in [Figure 7], a practice canvas is crumpled up and hung on one wall, connected to the floor. The black paint was also sprayed on the ladder an hour before the exhibition opened and displayed in a less dry state. Overall, black and white were used as achromatic colors. Traditionally in Korea, black among the five colors represent water in the same meaning as nothing. The existence of water only changes its physical shape to solids, liquids, and gases depending on the temperature but does not change its physical properties. In this work, it was intended to say that there is no difference between visible and invisible through the black color representing the properties of water in the air, although not visible. <Mobius strip_confront> [Figure 8] is a work that records the phenomenon of paint flowing down by applying a brush only to the top of the canvas. <Evolution, Involution> [Figure 9] Also, it was quickly poured onto the canvas placed horizontally on the floor, allowing the paint to flow down from the canvas to the bottom, allowing the viewer to see the process. The painting on the canvas is a self-portrait, and the yellow paint poured over it erodes the image. The artwork on the canvas is a self-portrait, and the yellow color poured out serves to erase the image on the painting.
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[Figure 10] Song E Yoon, <Essence>, (30×40)×4cm, ink on concrete and acrylic. 2015.
[Figure 11] Song E Yoon, 162.2x130.3cm, <The Universe in a Moment>, Acrylic on Canvas, 2010.
[Figure 13] Song E Yoon, 162.2x130.3cm, <The Universe in a Moment>, Acrylic on Canvas, 2010.
Painting works [Figure 10] <Essence> and [Figure 11] and [Figure 12] <My Universe> are also worked that record images created by happening in seconds. Through this, it was intended to convey the pure materiality of the material without any filtration by revealing the process of the paint flowing from top to bottom on the canvas by pressure or gravity, not by the artist's hand. [Figure 13] <Gap and Boundary_b> and [Figure 14] <Gap and Boundary_p> worked under a brush.
[Figure 13] Song E Yoon, <Boundary with Gap_b>, 116.8×91 cm, Acrylic on Canvas, 2010.
[Figure 14] Song E Yoon, <Boundary with Gap_p>, Acrylic on Canvas, 2010. 30×30 cm, Acrylic on Canvas, 2010.
Squeeze the paint tube horizontally on the canvas or tap it on the floor to spread the paint. And display by setting up a screen or laying it on the floor. Because the color is not solidified, they are tangled with each other due to external forces or gravity, creating a shape. Producing this type of painting is to record invisible traces of time visually. Through this, I understood the nature of the universe and thought about where I exist in the invisible and visible worlds.
2.2 Characteristics of light, sound, space and media as materials
[Figure 15] Song E Yoon, <Evolution, Involution>, Ga
vari size, salt_nylon thread_acrylic_black light,
[ Figure 16] Yoon Song-yi, <Total eclipse>, between variations
Z, Blacklight_fluorescent paint_ acrylic on wood_fan,sound,2009
The researcher has revealed the homogeneity of the visible and invisible worlds through light, sound, and space. First, we will look at [Figure 1], <Credit of the Universe>, [Figure 15], <Evolution, Involution>, and [Figure 16] <Total eclipse>, which express light. These works have something in common: they use black light lighting and fluorescent materials to represent colors with light in dark spaces. Light is an ultrafine particle and can be said to be the core of the invisible micro-world. Modern science recognized this light as a particle and began in December 1900 when the German physicist Max Planck published the Energy Quantum Hypothesis. Since then, the quantum hypothesis has been proven by theory as physicists such as Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr have studied the properties of this light. Their research shows that light is a small kernel and an invisible wave. Light is a substance with a duality that is both wave and particle. In 1927, British physicist Thomson (George Paget) discovered that waves were electrons and won the 1937 Nobel Prize in Physics. On the other hand, the essential component that makes up a material that does not decompose into other substances is an element, which is determined by how many electrons are in the outermost orbit. The researcher thought that in scientists' studies of particles, waves, and components, not all matter could eventually be explained away from electrons. That light made up of electrons explained our existence.
[Figure 17] Song E Yoon, <Essence>, variable size, incandescent light bulb_sand_speaker_sound_sil, 2014.
[Figure 1] <Credit of the Universe>, [Figure 8] <Evolution, Involution> uses a motor that generates light and wind made of fluorescent materials and black light to create a feeling that our existence becomes small particles and mixes in an invisible space as we fly. [Figure 16] <Total eclipse> also uses light and wind, and a bowl containing water is placed in a circle in the center of the installation space. Water evaporates by the wind but only changes its shape, and mass remains in the air. Through this work, I tried to say that the particle of light is the same as our Essence. Next, we will analyze results that use sound through computer editing as a critical work component. Sound, like light, is one of the waves that vibrate and propagate according to the height of pressure. [Figure 1] In <Credit of the Universe>, natural sounds such as water falling and wind were edited with a computer. [Figure 17] In < Essence>, lights were installed on the ceiling to focus attention on the center light. And sand from the exhibition site (Miami Beach) was piled on the floor. And sand from the exhibition site (Miami Beach) was piled up on the floor. Six Bluetooth speakers were placed in a circle around it. The sounds from pornography were edited on a computer to generate entirely new sounds by playing each speaker in a time difference of about 10 seconds.
2.3 Movement and Circulation
The natural cycle occurs so slowly and finely that it is hard for humans to detect. Small movements in the micro world change the macro world. It was previously explained in 2:2 that light is a particle or wave of electrons. The French physicist Louis de Broglie stated in 1924 that electrons were waves. Also, "All matter is called a 'material wave' because we think of it as a 'wave' with wavelengths." So all particles that are visible, invisible, or surround us are like electrons. Particles and antiparticles are constantly produced and dissipated even in the 'vacuum.' In general, a vacuum is considered to be a space with nothing, but in "the quantum theory of the field," it was proved through vacuum tube experiments that particles and antiparticles are constantly "largely produced" and "extinguished." In the past, it was confirmed that the concept of nothing in the East was not different from what it is. The researcher tried to show these invisible physical phenomena visually. [Figure 16] <Total eclipse> is a work that watches the process of water evaporating in a round bowl. In this process is difficult to immediately check the movement of particles, but over time, you become aware of a phenomenon by confirming that the water in the bowl has decreased. Water in the bowl disappeared as it evaporated into the air, but according to the law of mass conservation, water maintains the same mass. [Figure 15] <Evolution, Involution> also showed particle shaking using wind.
2.4 Codes and Networks
Researchers' intangible art exhibits more prominent features in code and network working methods that use the material and non-material media. This work is multimedia work through digital and analog. For example, a binary-coded image is delivered to a person over an online network. This form also has conceptual characteristics. Contemporary art theorist Tony Godfrey defines abstract art in this way. "Conceptual art is not about form or material, but about concept and meaning, and it raises questions about what art is." Any artist may have asked, 'What is art?' or 'What is art?' Conceptual art that focuses on concepts and meanings rather than universal visual art expression that focuses on form or material can be said to be an art method that can effectively express intangible art. These characteristics will be examined in detail throughout the work.
First, look at <My Portrait> in [Figure 3]. If we looked at the process of producing one installation work in Process Art earlier, this chapter would look at the essential network system of the entire work in detail. <Myportrait> is the temporary operation of a site called 'myportrait.com. ' It is a work to observe the appearance of a creative opportunity platform in which free art production, trading, and exhibition planning take place in an environment where anyone can become a producer and consumer of art. [Picture 18] If you look at the diagram in Figure 3, you can see clothes and paint hanging from the ceiling above the canvas in the center of the floor. Since then, various styles of portraits by multiple people have been hung on the wall. This offline exhibition was created to inform the composition of the site called 'myportrait.com. ' The actual exhibition space of this work is online, and all situations in which online users visit and trade, starting with the establishment of the site, become the work itself. This work is an online portrait sales service site that makes it easy to buy and sell portraits online. The work structure to perform this can be largely divided into three stages:
- It is the stage of establishing performance methods, systems, and recording media technologies.
- It is the user's site use and image network stage.
- It is an expansion stage of reproducing the traded image into the exhibition.
A technical method for performing an online portrait sales service using a connected server computer is as follows. The orderer receives portrait sales information from an anonymous artist terminal in the cyber world, stores it, transmits the above portrait sales information to the order terminal, and receives portrait order information from the order terminal and transmits it to the seller terminal. The description of this technical composition is summarized in [Graph 2]. If you look closely at the transmission system for this process, as shown in the information delivery system [Graph 4], users using terminals are organically connected to each screen and category in the server through a network. For the signs and names of [Graph 4], refer to [Graph 3].
[Graph 2] Technical composition_1, the order of use of <my portrait.com >
[Graph 3] A table of sign descriptions in the figure.
[Graph 4] Technology composition_2, the information delivery system of <my portrait.com >.
If you have identified the technical system configuration, the image network, the second step of 'myportrait.com, 'is examined through [Graph 5] and [Graph 6]. The order and seller, who are the users of this site, encounter the screen as shown in the picture below on their respective devices. The orderer inputs the image to be ordered from the artist on the screen, selects the seller, and pays the cost. The cost is at the discretion of the order and the seller.
The seller can also check and select the image of the order. When the transaction is completed, and the work is produced, the seller uploads the image to the screen to proceed with the work transaction. The orderer may download, save, or print the completed work. Finally, it is the stage of reproducing the work. Online site users can plan a cyber exhibition for works updated by other users, as shown in Table 8. Cyber exhibition planners start by selecting and designing exhibition spaces, selecting artists and pieces, and adequately arranging appointments. Exhibition planners can also hold an exhibition to create an event that determines and awards famous works. Then, the user makes another creation through exhibition planning and reproduces the art form and meaning. As shown in Table 7, the cycle of this process is a structure in which operators, sellers, and orderers coexist in circles without distinction of areas. Their roles are not fixed and are organically variable and connected. The researcher who created the platform observes the progress of the work with minimal intervention. Through this work, the researcher tried to develop a platform for art users to expand their creative areas through artists' mediums, away from the instrumental perspective of looking at technology.
Next, we would like to examine the work of 'code and network' using bar codes. [Figure 19] <Confront> is a photograph of the researcher's performance work. It is a one-dimensional barcode consisting of 13 numerical information, which expresses the appearance of being caught by a barcode recognizer wherever a human beings go. This scene was conceived from a system that sounded an alarm when a product theft prevention recognizer was installed at the entrance of the store. In the one-dimensional world, only coded numbers 'information' rather than 'emotion' or 'communication' are factors that judge an object. However, with the advent of QR code 17), a matrix-type two-dimensional code developed by Japan's Denso Wave in 1994, code could serve as a medium for containing and communicating various information. [Figure 20] <Love Letter> uses these two-dimensional characteristics to generate the code of information that the author and the viewer want and exchange letters in a classical way. First, the writer finds an object to communicate by exchanging letters together on his SNS. Applicants who wish to receive a letter will forward their mailing address in an online message. And a few days later, he receives the author's QR code in his mailbox. The recipient can open it on his or her smartphone. The information stored in the code is all different depending on the recipient, and this information is specific to only one individual who receives the letter. As soon as the recipient opens the code, infinite spaces such as images, text, and online links will open. The recipient also mails the reply to the author by making it a QR code.
As a result, <Love Letter> expands its meaning to infinite space and becomes an essential medium of human interest and love through individual communication. The researcher said in the introduction, "We look at the development of visual art over time as a process of change in communication technology and think that today's art is functioning as a medium that connects the physical and spiritual dimensions." In this way, the development of communication technology that delivers information can materialize non-material emotions, meanings, and contents or move codes into materials such as paper letters and stamps to non-material systems, which are infinite spaces. Therefore, the researcher communicates the "form" of exchanging letters through this work by the artist itself I'm trying to talk about the 'content.'
IV. Research work analysis department
Meaning of INTANGIBLE ART Settings
1. Analysis of types and characteristics of research works
The researcher classified and analyzed the works before the research work in four expression ways in the background of the formation of the research work in Chapter 2. Accordingly, before setting up INTANGIBLE ART, named by the researcher, we would like to examine the research work by dividing it into the secondary nature of the process art style, the media characteristics of light, sound, and space as materials, movement and circulation, code and network.
1.1. Imposition of Process Art Style
[Figure 30] Song E Yoon, <vicinity_1>, 90.9x72.7cm, mixed material on canvas, 2016.
[Figure 30] <vicinity_1> worked underneath with paints, concrete, and ink. Just before the exhibition, squeeze the paint tube horizontally on the canvas where the background work has been completed or tap it on the floor to spread the paint. And they put up a screen or lay it on the floor to display it. Since the paint is not solidified, they are tangled with each other due to external forces or gravity. Producing this type of painting is to visually record invisible traces of time. Through this, I want to understand the nature of the universe and think about where I exist in the invisible world and the visible world.
[Figure 31] Song E Yoon, <Invisible_1>, Variable Size, Blacklight_fluorescent paint_wood block_motor_line tape, 2017.
[Figure 32] Part of Figure 37.
[Figure 33] Song E Yoon, <Entrance>, 4x4x3m, Sound_Seal_Mirror Sheet_Line Tape, 2016.
[Figure 31] <Invisible_1> uses a motor that generates light and wind made of fluorescent materials and black light to create a feeling that our existence becomes small particles mixed in an invisible space as we fly. [Figure 33] < Entrance> allows the sound of electronic devices to spread between areas without pyramid-shaped boundaries. As you can see in these works, the sound wavelength is invisible to the eye, but it allows the body to feel the electrons that are our existence best. Finally, I would like to look at the installation works that show the variable characteristics of space. This work is made of fragile threads and tapes, and there is no support on the floor, and it is floating in the air, drawing a square and triangular structure in the space. The space is further expanded as lines are reflected through the mirror sheet at the bottom. These lines are devices that create a visual illusion that areas that are not separated are separated. For example, there is no distinction between the Entrance and the exit, but the space is divided according to the perception of the time.
[Figure 34] Song E Yoon,<Invisible_2>, variable size, acrylic thread stone on canvas, 2017.
[Figure 34] <Invisible_2> is the form of hanging threads and stones in the center of the canvas on the wall and connecting them to the floor, giving the impression that heavy stones are pulling on the painting on the wall. The blue canvas is divided into two sides when viewed from the center. When viewed from the side, the stone on the floor and the thread tied to the canvas on the wall are connected to form a rectangular shape.
[Figure 35] Song E Yoon, <Invisible_3>, 4x3.5x3m, acrylic_gelstone_nylon yarn_motor_plastic ball on wood, 2017.
Also, a device called thread and stone creates shadows, making it look as if there is a picture or not. [Figure 35] In <Invisible_3>, you can feel the energy of space through the symmetry and harmony of straight lines and curves. In the center of the exhibition space, regular or irregular grid-shaped structures consisting of four straight lines are floated to be symmetrical to each other. And on the floor are concrete panels with rough surfaces. In the middle of it, a plastic ball keeps spinning. A circular pattern structure is hung on three sides of the outer wall of the space. Visitors can feel the invisible energy concentrated in the center through the wavelengths of red, blue, and yellow colors and the structure of straight lines and curves. Similarly, the three works [Figure 36] <Invisible _aa> and [Figure 37] <Invisible_5> are also attached to the wall, but they are floated in space or suspended in the air by 1.5 to 3 cm, making it seem like there is a boundary that does not exist.
[Figure 36] Song E Yoon, <Invisible_aa>, 28x90x2.5cm, Acrylic on Wood, 2017.
[Figure 37] Song E Yoon, <Invisible_5>, 25x85x1cm, Acrylic on Wood, 2017.
1.3. Movement and Circulation
[ Figure 38] Song E Yoon, <Invisible_4>, variable size, acrylic_motor on plastic ball, 2017.
[Figure 39] Song E Yoon, <Circulation>, 1.5x1.5x2m, Fan_Rubber Balloon_Nylon Thread, 2016.
[Figure 38] In <Invisible_4>, the movement was emphasized by dropping red paint when yellow plastic balls were arranged in a straight line and spinning constantly. [Figure 39] <Circulation> is a work in which rubber balloons move due to artificial winds at the bottom in an inverted pyramid structure that is opened with fine threads. Then, balloons are tangled with each other in a triangular form, an open but confined space, and repeatedly exercise again due to wind energy.
1.4. Specification of code and network
[Figure 40] The scroll pause work titled <But> is a multi-concept work that attempts to convey the symbolic meaning of the text through light media. The concept can be largely divided into value creation through online transactions, material value extinction through use, and invisible meaning ownership.
[Picture 40] Song E Yoon, <But>, 1.5x1x2m, roll tissue_steel stick_online transaction, 2016.
Looking at the process of value creation through online transactions, cheap tissues commonly used in toilets are given longevity. There are 278 pages of this tissue. After using all the tissues, the tissue angle comes out, and the word "But" is written inside. The tissue works are traded at a high price in the online shopping mall's art sales section, Amazon (amazon.com ). The work is shipped to the customer's house with a luxurious case, warranty, and kit containing how to use the work. Paid-for tissue creates value for that price. Next, it leads to the process of extinguishing material value through work. The buyer extinguishes the value by using tissue, a work of art, in the bathroom according to the manual on how to use the work. And you can check the text after it's all gone. After all the pages of the toilet paper disappeared, the owner of the work finally became able to have an invisible meaning. It is a work in which matter disappears, and only non-materials exist. However, the reversal of this work is a 'tissue art that has not been traded.' Whether or not an online transaction takes place is a decisive process that creates the meaning and value of this work, unlike whether or not the artwork in the gallery is sold does not determine the purpose of the work. In the event of a transaction, it goes through an offline distribution process, but otherwise, the work is stored in a non-material space only as a coded image online. This work can contain the core of Intangible Art that the "form" of online transactions becomes "content."
2. Discuss the relationship between researchers' INTANGIBLE ART and research work
The researcher assumes the material world as a realistic dimension and the non-material world as a mental dimension and aims to define the researcher's definition of the mediating art that connects the cognitive size and the material world and the non-material world based on Stephen Hawking's "Model-Dependent Realism" 23. This chapter will analyze the work by dividing the content and format. First, we will learn about the multi-art genre called Intangible Art, named by the researcher, and examine how digitized human-experienced art that communicates with objects leads humans to spiritual experiences. Next, we will discuss how to express invisible phenomena in the multi-art form of intangible art in the researcher's work.
23) Model-dependent realism is a position adopted by Stephen Hawking in his book The Great Design and serves as a basic framework for interpreting modern science. In this position, a physical theory or world is a rule that connects a model and its elements with observation data. It bypasses all these debates and debates that existentialism and anti-realism have been taking place. According to model-dependent realism, whether the model conforms to reality is meaningless, and only whether the model fits observation is pointless. Stephen Hawking, "the great design", translated by Jeon Dae-ho, magpie, 2010, p. 57.
Based on the above 'model-dependent realism,' the researcher assumes the material world as a realistic dimension and the non-material world as a spiritual dimension (cyber world) and intends to define and explain a new concept of 'intangible art.' As Stephen Hawking said in The Great Design, "There is no concept of reality that does not rely on pictures or theories," setting up an invisible but imaginary model will provide an essential criterion for defining this concept.
2.1. Conceptual provisions of INTANGIBLE ART
Intangible art was created by combining terms of various meanings. This can be symbolized and abbreviated as M2I (M2I, M2I). If so, it is necessary to look at what combination of terms the concept of intangible art consists of. In English, 'intangibles' means 'indescribable, intangibles'. The expression "visible" that the researcher refers to is "invisible" or "non-visualizing" when translated into English. However, it can be said that 'intangible' is more appropriate for what the researcher wants to talk about than the word above, which means invisible. Intangible, a word that expresses something invisible but exists is used as the word Intangible culture when expressing intangibles in English. This "typical cultural property" is a unique system in Korea and means a cultural property that does not have a shape or substance for people. This word contains the meaning of something invisible but existing that the researcher wants to discuss so we can see that the meaning is in line.
On top of that, the term created INTANGIBLE ART by combining "spiritual," which means "mental and spiritual," "Media," which means a medium of delivery, and "art," which means art. And this plays a role in connecting the material and the immaterial. As such, the researcher thought that the contents expressed in the work were combined to create something new through a chemical reaction. Chemistry is the study of the nature, composition, and structure of substances and their changes. It is the study of the combination of the importance of different properties to become substances of entirely different properties. Therefore, we decided to systematize this and create a model map. The meaning of this is summarized as shown in Table 11 below concerning the chemical formula in which hydrogen (H) atoms and oxygen (O) atoms meet to become water (H2O) molecules and the molecular structure model such as Table 10. Because 'Imaterial' is defined as having the same properties as 'Material' in Intangible Art, it is marked with the symbol 'M.' And the combination of 'Intangible, Spiritual, Media, Art' is marked with 'I.'
This was organized as shown in [Graph 12] and was shown as a combined model as shown in [Graph 13] Therefore, the researcher's work can be displayed with a simple symbol of 'intangible art' or 'M2I' and becomes a new art genre combined with the above elements.
2.2 Contents and characteristics of INTANGIBLE ART
Intangible art is a multimedia art genre that connects the material and non-material worlds using various media with content to express invisible and mental phenomena. There are no restrictions on any media and genre, such as painting, installation, concept, media, and sound, and it expresses non-material phenomena in physical or network. In other words, it is an art form containing spiritual content and various expressions. In intangible art, the material and non-material worlds are never different. Still, they are not visible to the eyes of the non-material world, so they thought they needed a medium connecting them, And I think it's 'mental' to join them. It is Intangible Art that artistically expresses this. In addition, digital media, one of the various expression media of intangible art, is the most effective way to connect the material and non-material worlds. Media artist Roy Escott, who expresses non-material phenomena in digital media, explained the relationship between the Internet and the mind.
“Telematic culture is related to connecting individuals and individual places on a global scale, but most importantly, it enables the connection of the mind. The Internet is an unfinished infrastructure for the creative consciousness, also called the "global brain." However, it has enormous power to connect the artist's thoughts, and this aspect of cognition leads us to creativity."24)
According to another theorist, "Plusser," mentioned in the theoretical background, "The medium is the center of communication theory, so it is important to analyze the medium faithfully." The medium itself has already become meaningful; to grasp its meaning, media theory must be phenomenological."25) claimed. Plusser saw the pre-alphabet era as cyclical thinking that values meaning and the post-alphabet era as an era of linear thinking where content is essential.
As mentioned earlier in the background and purpose of the study, the researcher sees the development of visual art over time as a process of change in communication technology and thinks that today's art is functioning as a medium that connects the physical and spiritual dimensions. In the era before the development of written language, humanity communicated by creating visual images on natural drawing paper when there was a story that a child wanted to tell, as if he were holding a branch and scribbling on the sand floor. Since then, with the advent of written language, images have played a role as an independent visual language and artistic expression has become possible in the form of crafts, sculptures, and paintings. Suppose computers and the Internet appear in the post-alphabet era, in this era. In that case, the format is content because it contains symbolized character languages in the image. The network that delivers the image abbreviates all information at a tremendous speed. The image art method in which this form is the content is called the intangible art method.
2.3. Relationship between the type of INTANGIBLE ART and research work
The researcher divided intangible art into four main types. First, it was classified into a process installation work for painting, a second installation work expressing the light and sound space, a third installation work representing movement and circulation, and finally, a work represented by code and network.
24) Roy Escott,Technoetic Art』, Yonsei University Press, 2002, pp. 130-131.
25) Shim Hye-ryeon, 20Media Philosophy of the 20th Century, 2006, p.
The contents of Intangible Art are composed mainly of three elements: Zeitlichkeit, Extensibility, and Materiality. These factors explain the tension between humans and nature, the essential principles of the universe felt in everyday life, and researchers represent invisible but natural invisible phenomena by exhibiting the process of work. The researcher's writer's note explains Zeitlichkeit, spatiality, and materiality as follows. "Zeitlichkeit is the history of matter and man. The conditions of passing time are the same. I explain this through the process and traces of installation work in which a substance falls from top to bottom or reaches the critical value limit and overflows. For example, the paint falls from top to bottom, leaving a trace on the painting on the floor, covering the previous result. However, this process is not a break from the past but includes the continuous and organic flow of time and the past, present, and future of all substances present in it. It explains that time and matter are overlapping beings at the same time, not segmented others. Extensibility refers to all spaces in the micro and macro worlds invisible to the eyes of gravity and gravity. The origin of my work can be found in the Yin and Yang Five Elements, the basis of Eastern philosophy. Therefore, rather than drawing, the picture is drawn by the continuity of space, such as the change in the material's properties due to wind, air, and temperature. And light and sound awaken the five senses and look at us as being in space. The organic relationship between space and time of the installation work makes you feel the mysterious power of nature experienced in Chaos and Cosmos. I express materiality with light along with five colors based on five colors. Color is another name for the universe and the most appropriate visual language that constitutes my work. Fluorescent colors based on pentagonal colors representing the universe's orientation and components are not just the properties of matter, but also the symbolic meaning of the matter in which order and tension are sometimes harmonized instead of color." As seen from this, the researcher believes that zeitlichkeit, spatiality, and materiality do not exist separately but are organically connected to harmonize and contain the order of the universe that the five colors and Five Elements refer to. Through the work, the researcher classified and examined how these elements were expressed in the research work into four categories according to the method of expression.
So far, researchers' INTANGIBLE ART (M2I) has been investigated through "a study on the non-visible dimension through media." Through this study, we tried to prove that the researcher's intangible art is a multimedia art genre that expresses invisible and mental phenomena and connects the material and non-material worlds using various media.
In the introduction to Chapter I, the background and purpose of research on the invisible dimension through the medium were mentioned, and the methods and contents for research on the concept and content of intangible art defined by the researcher were described.
To this end, Chapter II examined the definition of an invisible dimension from a philosophical background. Section 1 analyzes the similarities and differences between the intellectual and scientific perspectives of the material and non-material worlds from the East and West. Likewise, in Section 1 of Section 2, modern media philosophers looked at the material and non-material worlds and the definition of invisible dimensions. Finally, section 2 looked at the trends and work changes before the study.
Chapter III examined the work of 'James Turrell' to study the expression of invisible phenomena. In Section 1, prior research in the paper was reviewed to discuss the invisible phenomenon of Turrell's work, and in Section 2, works that appear as visible expressions of invisible phenomena were analyzed by dividing them into Section 2's 1's 'light, sounds, time, space' and Section 2's 'experience as invisible phenomena.'
In the IV chapter, the researchers analyzed the research work of researchers. First, the first verse was divided into four types of researchers based on the analysis of the researchers' study. In the first verse 1, <not be seen_2017>.In the first verse 3 of the works of <circulation_2016> and the digital sound installation of <not be seen1_2017>, <not be seen2_2017>, <not be seen3_2017>, and Finally, in the first verse 4 of the results of digital and network's performance of <But_2016> shows the combination of <But_2016>. Through this, researchers studied the location of this work as a parameter that leads to physical cars and non-material systems, commonly referred to as medium-sized cars and functions. In the second verse, the researchers showed one possibility of the researchers. In the second verse of the study, Human Rights.
Despite studying invisible phenomena through various media based on this theoretical background, it remains regrettable that the verification of the justification for using digital media has not been detailed.
This study has defined the clear concept of INTANGIBLE ART (M2I) by synthesizing the researcher's work so far and will serve as a guide to the researcher's work direction in the future. In addition, the researcher will use this study to expand the multimedia work world that reveals the universe's existence indefinitely.