the 100 people who moved the history of art
From eyeglasses to Andy Warhol
the men who made the history of art in the East and the West
Author Kim Young Eun
Publishing Cheonga Publishing Co., Ltd
Issued on October 15, 2013.
鄭歚 (1676. 1. 3~1759. 3. 24)
■ the late Joseon Dynasty
■ By pioneering our painting style, Jingyeong Sansuhwa made a significant breakthrough in the history of Korean painting.
■ <Geumgangjeon>, <Inwangjeokdo>, <Park Yeon Waterfall>, <Kyunggyo Myeongseungcheop>, <Yeongang Imsulcheop>
Jeongseon was a painter who was active during the reign of King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo, and he made the most significant milestone in the history of Korean painting. Jeongseon lived when the Imjin War and the Byeongjahoran wars were settled, and Joseon's own culture blossomed. There were attempts to restore Joseon's national pride in each field, and efforts were made to contain the beauty of Joseon in painting. Silhak, a study of real life based on skepticism of Juju studies, was born in the study. A cultural renaissance emerged with Hangeul poetry literature, Joseon Chinese literature, and Seokbongche. Against this backdrop of the times, Jeongseon pioneered our painting style, Jingyeongsan Suhwa, by breaking away from following the conventional conceptual landscape painting of Chinese style. Jingyeongsan Suhwa is not simply seen and painted the mountain stream (sometimes referred to as Silgyeongsan Suhwa separately) but is considered to have recreated Joseon's landscape based on Joseon's independent thoughts, ideologies, and mood.
Jeong Seon was born on January 3, 1676 (the 2nd year of King Sukjong's reign) in the northern part of Hanseongbu to Jeong Si-ik and Miryang Park. The main building is Gwangju, Ja Wonbaek (元伯), Ho is Gyeomjae (謙), and Nangok (蘭). His father was 39 years old, and his mother was 33 years old when he was born, which was a very late childbirth at that time. Although it was a prestigious family, it was feeble during his father's generation because he did not live in public office from his great-grandfather's generation. Moreover, his father died when Jeong Seon was 14 years old, and his life became tough when his mother was hit by the issue of trying to lay the son born by Gisa Hwan-guk (the concubine of King Sukjong, Jang Hui-bin) at the atomic bomb.
When he was young, he studied under Kim Chang-hyup, Kim Chang-help, and Kim Shin-up, who were members of the Andong Kim clan and were well-versed in "Jungyong" and "College." However, it is said that he became a gardener because he was in such poverty that he could not eat. Since he was a noble class, he lived in poverty until he was 30, and at the recommendation of Kim Chang-jip, he entered the drawing book. He had no political confrontation or close exchanges among the middle class, the Dohwaseo Garden and devoted himself to painting while maintaining a distance. In addition, he frequently interacted with the four godfathers and was favored by King Yeongjo, and as Kim Chang-jip rose to Woouijeong, he lived a smooth life in a garden.
Jeongseon's name is widely known in the "Shinmyo Year Pungakdocop," painted in 1711 after a tour of Geumgangsan Mountain. It was painted after his teacher Kim Chang-hyssop accompanied his disciples to the Geumgangsan Mountain. It is composed of 13 sides and one side of the interrogation, including "Geumgangsan Naechongdo," "Danbalnyeongmanggeumgang," "Jangansa," "Buljeong," "Bukdam," "Baekcheondongjang," "Ongcheon," "Goseongmunamgwanilchul," "Haesanjeong," "Jongsanjeong," "Samilpo," and "Sijung." Although the writing and writing methods are clumsy, it is highly regarded that the basics of the Jingyeongsansu technique can be seen. The "Haeakjeonshinchop," painted after returning to Geumgangsan Mountain the following year, is not currently available, but it is said that many people admired it at the time. Jeongseon, who has used various techniques through travel since this period, matured the Jingyeonghwa method even more after his 60s.
In 1721, Jeongseon was sacrificed by the governor of Hayang County, Gyeongsang Province. In Hanyang, a confrontation between Noron and Soron over the tax payment of a new private painting (after the accession of Gyeongjong, Yeongjo) by Yeoning-gun (a case in which Norton insisted on the cleansing of Yeoning-gun by proxy, but was eventually expelled from the politics under the pretext of disloyalty due to the combination of Soron and Chungservatives), occurred. Many of his supporters were killed or exiled. Kim Chang-jip, the best supporter, was also exiled to Geoje and studied, and maybe because of the shock, Kim Shin-up and Jeongseon's teacher, Kim Chang-hyeop, also passed away shortly after. Accordingly, fewer people sponsored Jeongseon and ordered paintings. However, after King Yeongjo took the throne, the situation reversed, and painting orders took place one after another.
In 1726, Jeong Seon, who came to Seoul after completing his term as governor of Hayang, was sacrificed at the Tosa of Uigeumbu. He prepared a house under the Baekhwasan Mountain in Sunhwabang and called it "Ingokjeongsa (仁)" or "Ingok Yougeo (幽居)." "Jeongsa" means a place to hone the mind and body and pass on studies, and "Yugeo" means a remote house far from the 幽居圖. Ingok 仁, a painting of life in Ingokjeongsa in his later years, can be said to be a painting of Jeong Seon's life. He also enjoyed recording paintings, and when he attended a meeting of Uigeumbu agents, he did not order him to do painting work. When he attended Lee Kwang-je's Hoi-bang, he left "Hoebangyeon" and "Seogyojeonui" a farewell banquet when Lee Chun-je left as a consolation envoy for the death of the empress of the Qing Dynasty's Ongjeongje.
In 1733, Jeongseon was sacrificed by the Chungcheong prefectural governor in Gyeongsang Province. Jeongseon, painting alone in a secluded countryside, reached the peak of her mature beauty as a garden and completed "Geumgangjeon," considered one of the best masterpieces of her life the following year. "Geumgangjeon," currently designated National Treasure No. 217, is a real-world painting of our landscape. The work, painted from the point of view of the sky as if taking an aerial photo, has a magnificent 12,000 peaks of Geumgangsan Mountain. The sharply vertically stretched Golsan Mountain (骨san, rocky mountain) on the right and the soft Yuksan Mountain on the left (肉san, soil, and tree) on the left are in harmony with the solid and weak power, and the detailed description is exact even though the pencil line is drawn vigorously without hesitation.
In 1735, Jeongseon moved up to Hanyang when his old mother passed away. In the meantime, the second grandson was born, and he was Sonam (巽菴) Hwang (鄭榥), who inherited the Jingyeongsan Suhwa style and left "Nohjeokmanchwido," "Yangju Songchudo," and "Daegu Dalseongdo."
Jeongseon, over 60, began to pour out immortal masterpieces from this time. During his five-year stay in Yangcheon County, from age 65, he toured various places or toured and left them as paintings. Representative examples include "Gyeonggyo Myeongseungcheop," painted along the Han River, and "Yeongang Imsulcheop," painted along the Imjin River in Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province. He also dealt with daily life as the subject of a self-portrait painting, "Reading Leisure," in which a scholar comes out to the toenmaru and appreciates peonies in potted plants. Orders for paintings were poured out, and it was said that getting one of his paintings was difficult even if he paid several paddy fields.
Jeong Seon, who turned 70, returned to Ingokjeongsa after his term of office and lived a quiet life sharing poems and paintings by interacting with his long-time friends Lee Byung-yeon and Gwana Jae Cho Young-Seok. Jeong Seon also gave Lee Byung-yeon a portrait and a painting of his study, Noh Chok-jae. During this period, masterpieces of his later life, "Inwangje Saekdo" and "Park Yeon Falls," were born. Designated as National Treasure No. 216, "Inwangje Saekdo" depicts the scenery of Inwangsan Mountain after rain and is a representative work of Jingyeongsan Suhwa in the late Joseon Dynasty. The rocks of Inwangsan Mountain are fully arranged in a circle, and underneath them are surrounded by thick fog, with the mountains and trees thick and mighty, and the mist and ridges expressed lightly, creating a strong contrast. It is a masterpiece that faithfully describes the object and brings a sense of excitement to life.
Jeongseon used a technique to drastically transform the object to emphasize the scene of falling waterfalls in "Park Yeon Falls." While the water stream of the waterfall overwhelms the entire screen, the cliffs on both sides are painted with thick ink to emphasize the white foam that occurs when the waterfall falls, which strongly contrasts the dynamics. This gives the feeling of the waterfall roaring and its dynamism.
Gyeomjae Jeongseon, who did not let go of his brush until he was 80, produced even greater masterpieces in his later years. In his later years, he is considered to have created Korean paintings based on realistic descriptions based on original writing skills, close observations, and a mature understanding of nature and art. Jeongseon quietly passed away on March 24, 1759. Even after his death, his reputation continued. Jingyeongsan Suhwa was established as a genre of painting as Kang Hee-eon, Kim Yun-gym, and Jeong Hwang took over the Jingyeongsan Suhwa style. It is said that even 50 to 60 years later, his paintings were hung in every house in the capital. There is also an anecdote that a Chinese person visited Joseon, saw the mountain stream of Joseon in person, and admired it: "I realized that Biroso Gyeomjae's paintings had reached the level of God."