[100 Challenge] DanJi’s reading note_07

[100 Challenge] DanJi’s reading note_07

Broad, shallow knowledge for intellectual conversation

Author (Writing) Mr. Chae

Published Whale Book | February 21, 2020




● a straight and circular view of time

History begins with time

● Production vehicles and characteristics of capitalism

Two critical concepts for explaining history

● primitive communist society

One day, a means of production was born

● an ancient slavery society

The means of production created kings and enslaved people

● medieval feudal society

The class has become more subdivided

● modern capitalism

A new power was born

★ Interim arrangement

● the development of modern capitalism

The oversupply has begun

● the imperial era

They needed a colony

● World War I

Oversupply sparked a war

● the Great Depression of the World Economy

The price competition led to the Great Depression

● World War II

A second war broke out due to oversupply




● Conservatives, progressives and democracy

What to do with the economic system

● the theoretical distinction between conservative and progressive

Are you a conservative or a progressive

● a realistic distinction between conservatives and progressives

How does conservative and progressive manifest in reality

★ Interim arrangement

● FTA, free school meals, privatization

Let's apply conservatives and progressives to real-life

● a football game metaphor for conservative/progressive

It is a game of conservative and progressive; who do you root for

● democracy

How Democracy Makes Dictatorship

● dictatorship, elitism

Is dictatorship and elitism bad

● comparison between dictatorship and democracy

What political system do we need now

● Liberal democracy, communism, social democracy

How do the economy and politics combine

● the formal radical and realistic conservatism of democracy

Why are we being conservative

★ Final cleanup




● individuals and society

the impact of history, economy, and politics on society

● individualism and collectivism

Whose side will you stand for when the interests of individuals and society collide

● selfishness and totalitarianism

Totalitarianism blinds individuals to unethical behavior

● a natural right

How to Save an Individual from Totalitarianism

● Totalitarianism and Taxation

Is it totalitarian violence to raise taxes for the wealthy

★ Interim arrangement

● the words of the media

How does the media tell a lie

★ Final cleanup




● an ethical situation that puts us in a test

Ethical judgment depends on the situation

● the definition of ethics

Ethical judgment exists independently of the real world

● Mandatory and teleological theories

Whether to consider the obligations given or future consequences

● the theory of duty and the definition of justice

Find an absolute moral law

● teleology and utilitarianism

Save the greatest happiness of the most significant number

★ Interim arrangement

● Hayek and Rolls

which society is ethical

★ Final cleanup


1. reality

History - primitive, ancient, medieval, modern, modern

means of production, oversupply

Economy - Early Capitalism, Late Capitalism, Neoliberalism, Socialism, Communism

the relationship between the market and the government

Politics - a distinction between conservative and progressive; a distinction between democracy and elitism

Society - Individual and Group Conflict, Individualism and Totalitarianism

Ethics - Theoretical and Practical aspects

Closely connected



primitive communist society / ancient slave society / medieval feudal society / modern capitalism/modernity


Primitive Communism-Modernity

A concept in which means of production is essential. The center of power is the person who owns the means of production.

Primitive Communities: No means of production; therefore, equality

Ancient Slavery Socialization: The king who owns the land, a means of production, is in power

Medieval feudal society: the king and lord who owned the manor ("land"), the means of production, were in power

Modern Capitalism: The bourgeoisie who owns factories and capital, the means of production, is in power



With the advent of capitalism, the concept of oversupply by factories is important

Oversupply -> Need to increase demand -> Market development (colonial war, World War I and II, economic depression)



market freedom/government intervention


market, early capitalism, neoliberalism, late capitalism, social democracy, communism, government

In the modern era, when industrialization began after the end of the Middle Ages, early capitalism, in which everything was entrusted to the market, was in trend. However, the emergence of late capitalism, in which the government intervened strongly due to problems such as the Great Depression. After that, neoliberalism emerged, which suffered a long-term recession due to excessive government intervention and pursued market freedom due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. If it goes toward market freedom, taxes and welfare decrease (beneficial to capitalists), while taxes and welfare increase if the government intervenes. (helpful to workers)



Four opposing concepts emerged from the question of which economic system to choose: the social system that determines the distribution method. (Conservative<->progress, democracy<->dictatorship)

Conservatives: Pursuing market freedom, including early capitalism and neoliberalism, tax cuts, and welfare cuts. (Benefits capitalists, society develops)

Progress: Pursuing government intervention, increasing taxes, increasing welfare, including late capitalism, social democracy, and communism (benefits workers, difficulty in social development)

Democracy is a form of politics in which equal individuals choose a political party and economic system that suits their interests.

Dictatorship: the opposite of democracy.



Concern about what values should be prioritized between conflicts between individuals and groups and the concepts of individualism and collectivism emerged.

Individualism: Ideas that prioritize individual interests between individual and group conflicts.

Selfishism is the concept of extreme individualism.

Collectivism: an idea that prioritizes the interests of a group between individuals and groups.

The notion that collectivism is extreme is totalitarianism (Hitler, Nazi)



The concepts of morality and ethics and the theory of teleology and duty, two significant concepts of ethics, emerged.

Morality: a regulation or rule that people generally agree on and implicitly comply with

Ethics: To doubt and examine whether such regulations or rules are justified


Mandatory (Ethical absolutism):

There is a moral law of absolute truth. It would help if you always obeyed these absolute laws.

Purpose Theory (Ethical Relativism):

Only variable moral laws exist. Utilitarianism seeks the greatest happiness for the most significant number.